Nocturia is the complaint of interruption of sleep one or more times because of the need to micturate. Each void is preceded and followed by sleep.
Urinary frequency is the complaint that voiding occurs more frequently during waking hours than previously deemed normal by the individual. The degree of bother to the individual is considered more important than the actual number of voids.
Waking at night one or more times due to the need to micturate?
Is extent of daytime voiding frequency considered greater than previously deemed normal?
Is extent of daytime voiding frequency considered bothersome?
Further investigation or referral to specialist is indicated when incontinence is associated with, or accompanied by:
Persistent or recurring urinary tract infections.
Dysuria, persisting bladder or urethral pain.
Haematuria, glycosuria or persistent proteinuria.
Inability to empty bladder or straining to empty.
Post void residual volume >200ml.
Rectal bleeding or unexplained vaginal bleeding.
Recent sudden alteration of bowel habits with no obvious explanation.
Persistent vulvo-vaginal itching area or undiagnosed vulval or rectal dermatological conditions.
Pelvic organ prolapse (POP) past introitus causing difficulty emptying bladder.
Pelvic masses, unexplained weight loss or unremitting night pain.
Suspected neurological disease e.g. MS, Parkinson’s disease, stroke, dementia or spinal cord symptoms, such as muscle weakness/wasting, altered reflexes, altered sensation (generally and saddle region), inability to empty bladder, loss of sensation when voiding.
Suspected urogenital fistulae.
Initial Testing / Examination:
Diagnostic imaging may be appropriate to rule out outlet obstruction.